Amminger GP, Berger GE, Schäfer MR. Omega-3 fatty acids supplementation in children with autism: A double-blind randomized, placebo controlled pilot study. Biol Psychiatry 2007; 61(4):551-553.
Researchers found that treatment with Omega-3 fatty acids was superior to placebo in controlling symptoms autism and associated symptoms including hyperactivity and stereotypy. Amminger and colleagues conducted a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled pilot study. The primary outcome measure was a change in scores from baseline to week 6 on the Aberrant Behavior Checklist (ABC).
Cicchetti, D. (2001). The impact of child maltreatment and psychopathology on neuroednocrine functioning. Development and Psychopathology 13, 783-804.
The findings of this study concluded that maltreated children with reported clinical-level internalizing problems have higher cortisol levels compared to non-maltreated boys who had lower levels of cortisol. The findings conclude that maltreatment and different forms of psychopathology have an effect on neuroendocrine regulation.
Chisholm, K. (1998). A Three year follow-up of attachment and indiscriminate friendliness in children adopted from Romanian orphanages. Child Development, 69 (4), 1092-1106.
This research article examines attachment and indiscriminately friendly behavior in children who spent at least 8 months in a Romanian orphanage (RO). The findings of this research indicate that RO children displayed significantly more insecure attachment behaviors in comparison to the control groups. These children had significantly more indiscriminately friendly behavior, behavior problems, and parents reported more parenting stress.
Delahanty, D., Nugent N., Christopher, N., Waltsh, M. (2005). Initial urinary epinephrine and cortisol levels predict acute PTSD symptoms in child trauma victims. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 121 (2).
Results of this study indicated that elevated initial cortisol and epinephrine levels immediately following a traumatic event continued to predict the development of acute PTSD symptoms; particularly in boys.
Forbes, H., Dziegielewski, S. (2003) “Issues facing adoptive mothers of children with special needs.” Journal of Social Work, 3 (3): 301-320.
The purpose of this article is to identify and understand the challenges that mothers face after they adopt special needs children. The study examines adoptive mothers who sought therapeutic assistance after the placement of their child and the difficulties they endured.
Ghuman J. K., (2007). Comorbidity moderates response to methylphenidate in the preschoolers with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology, 17 (5), 563-580.
According to a recent analysis of data from the Preschoolers with ADHD Treatment Study (PATS), funded by the National Institutes of Health’s National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH), preschoolers who are diagnosed with ADHD and who also have three or more coexisting disorders, are not likely to respond to treatment with the stimulant methylphenidate, regardless of dosage,
Goodman, W.K., Murphy, T.K, Storch, E.A. (2007). Risk of adverse behavioral effects with pediatric use of antidepressants. Psychopharmacology, 191 (1), 87-96.
This article reviews the Food and Drug Administration’s (FDA) decision to issue a “black box” warning about the risks associated with children and adolescents during the treatment of antidepressants.
Gunnar, M. (2001). Effects of early deprivation. Findings from orphanage-reared infants and children. In C. Nelson and M. Luciana (Eds.) Handbook of developmental cognitive neuroscience (617-629).
The focus of this article is to discuss and review the research concerning physical, cognitive, and emotional development of children adopted from Romanian orphanages over the last 15 years. The trends of early deprivation and possible outcomes are also evaluated.
Gunnar, M. & Cheatham, C. (2003). “ Brain and behavior interface: stress and the developing brain.” Infant Mental Health Journal, 24 (3), 195-211.
Research on infants and children who have been maltreated early in life is reviewed to show stress hormone activity. The researchers focus on enhancing care later in development and the possible reversal of the effects on behavior and neurobiology of early experiences. The authors review literature in the field and conclude that the longer the child is neglected the higher degree of developmental delays occur. Studies on the neuroendocrin systems show the effects on the HPA system and CORT systems in response these stressors.
Hughes, J.W., Watkins, L., Blumenthal, J.A., Kuhn, C., Sherwood, A. (2004). Depression and anxiety symptoms are related to increased 24-hour urinary norepinephrine excretion among healthy middle-aged women. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 57; 353-358.
The objective of this study was to evaluate the relationship between levels of self-reported symptoms of depression and anxiety and 24-hour urinary catecholamine excretion. Norepinephrine, epinephrine and cortisol are examined.
Levy, F., Swanson, J. M. (2001). Timing space and ADHD: the dopamine theory revisited. Australian and > New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 35, 504-511.
The objective of this study was to review the dopamine theory of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in terms of the advances made in research over the past decade. Serotonergic agents were found to have a calming affect on psycho-stimulants in which the dopamine transporter (DAT) gene was disrupted.
Moms who dine on fish could boost baby’s brain (2007). Pharmacy Times, 82.
This article comments on research from the US National Institutes of Health (NIH), which found that women who eat seafood during pregnancy may increase brainpower of their children. The authors list fish oil supplements as an alternative, and found that women who took these supplements during pregnancy had children with better developmental skills.
Oades, R.D. (2005). The control of repsonsiveness in ADHD by catecholamines: evidence for dopaminergic, noradrenergic and interactive roles. Developmental Science, 8 (2), 122-131.
The neurological base of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) from a neurochemistry and psychopharmacology standpoint, as well as the catecholamine based behavioral systems, are evaluated by Oades and colleagues. Dopamine and noradrenalin neurotransmission to the motor and cognitive symptoms of ADHD were studied.
Purvis, K.B., Cross, D.R., & Kellerman, G. (2006). “An experimental evaluation of targeted amino acid therapy with at-risk children. Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, 12 (6), 591-592.
This article explains the connection that neurotransmitter levels and ratios have on the behavior of at-risk youth. This comprehensive study found that targeted amino acid therapy, in conjunction with scheduled feedings and behavioral interventions, regulated the brain chemistry in children adopted from Russian orphanages.
Watts-English, T., Fortson, B., Gibler, N., Hooper, S. De Bellis, M. (2006).“ The psychobiology of maltreatment in childhood.” Journal of Social Issues, 62 (4) 717-736.
Authors of this article review empirical findings of neuropsychological functioning in children with Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). Serotonin deregulation, cortisol, the limbic system and neuro-imaging techniques are evaluated in regards to brain development.
Weidman-Becker, A. (n.d.). Child Abuse and neglect: effects on child development, brain development, and interpersonal relationships. International Adoption Article Directory. Retrieved October 17, 2007 from http://www.adoptionarticlesdirectory.com/article.php?id=42&act=print
This article is intended for parents and individuals in the mental health field. It clearly defines the correlation between neglect and abuse early in life and the long lasting effects it has on brain development.
Weidman-Becker, A. (n.d.). Recognizing attachment concerns in children. International Adoption Article Directory. Retrieved October 17, 2007 from http://www.adoptionarticlesdirectory.com/article.php?id=45&act=print
The focus of this article is to provide the audience with background information on attachment, how attachment disorders develop, and why healthy brain chemistry is reflective of healthy attachment in the first two years of life. The author describes what attachment disorders look like in all developmental stages of childhood.
Yehuda, R., Southwick, S., Giller, E.L., Ma, X., Mason, J.W., (1992). Urinary catecholamine excreation and severtiy of PTSD symptoms in Vietnam combat veterans. Journal of Nerv. Mental Disorders, 180 (5), 321-325.
This study found that urinary dopamine and norepinephrine levels were significantly correlated with the severity of PTSD symptoms. The researchers concluded that these findings supported the theory that enhanced sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activation plays a major role in PTSD and that increased SNS arousal may be closely linked to the severity of certain PTSD clusters.